Revisiting Novotny et al. 2002

Interesting interview about a paper written over 10 years ago by one of PNGs prominent researchers, Vojtech Novotny from the Binatang Research in Madang.

Ecology Students' Society

In 2002, Vojtech Novotny, Yves Basset, Scott Miller, George Weiblen, Birgitta Bremer, Lukas Cizek and Pavel Drozd published a paper in Nature providing evidence for low host-specificity of tropical herbivorous arthropods. This finding was based on data from over 900 herbivores from 51 plant species in a rainforest in New Guinea. Based on this finding, Novotny and colleagues provided new global estimates of arthropod diversity in the range of 4 – 6 million species, which was substantially lower than the accepted figure at that point in time. Fourteen years after its publication, I spoke to Vojtech Novotny about the making of these findings and their validity today.

Questions sent by email on 19th June 2016; responses received by email on 17th July 2016.

Hari Sridhar: What was the specific motivation to write this paper? Was the fieldwork done with this paper in mind or…

View original post 1,936 more words

Local Volunteers as Development Partners

PIC01915.JPG

These feet are made for walking

He walks the entire coastline, along the picturesque beaches when the tide is out. And when the tide is in, he takes  the long detour through thorny swamps, over cliffs and over sharp gravel beds.  From one coastline to another. From one side of the bay to the other – one step at the time.

Sometimes the road takes him up the river, over high mountains, down steep valleys and though wind swept grasslands into cold dark forests.

Meet him – middle-aged, average height,  tough, wiry and bronze from being chiseled by sun, rain, wind and salt;  limbs – lean and tough, disciplined to walk from sunup to sundown. Not a trace of body fat – a body that has accepted that humans eat to live not live to indulge the stomach.  Soles of the feel toughened up in layers that can withstand sharp gravel and even coals of fire.

Who is he? He is a man on a mission – a crusader. His message: nutrition. Sago grubs, green frog, wild yam and other lost food of the ancestors.

His mission: rekindling confidence in the ways of the fathers that had sustained generations prior to colonisation. Putting confidence into mothers, showing them the difference between eating sago grubs versus a can of tinned fish from Taiwan that costs money, which she may not have.

Why does he do what he do? I asked and he replied that he believes that what he is doing is his calling. If he does not document the secrets of the fathers, who else will? If he does not teach his people to survive, who else will?

No, he is not a shaman. He has a diploma in catering. He has had the taste of the high life, working for city hotels to well stocked mining camps. At the pinnacle of his career, he was even a head chef.

But then he started noticing the trend. Taro yield has decreased both in size and quality.  There seem to be a positive correlation between taro yield and the stature of young people. Even the energy levels and creativity and leadership capacity seems to be at an all-time low.

The river valley was being turned to rice fields, killing all seed bank consequently turning it into a river highway when it flooded. The river was getting killed – no more prawns and no more fish but algae greening the warm waters of the river during dry seasons.

Despite that, the people where still too far away from opportunities to earn money to buy food. His people were destined to suffer malnutrition.

Something had to be done. So he retired from cooking for money and put his life into service for his people – teaching mothers about nutrition using local food sources.

His  total budget is zero. All his expenses paid for with information that he carries in his head. For his pay, he appreciates a smile, a cup of hot sweet tea, food for his stomach and a place to lay his head for the night.

There are so many just like him. Walking bare feet, with a well-worn jacket and raincoat that also keeps cold away at night. A trusty torch, a bag full of buai and a heart that beats for the people.  Reaching one person at the time. Walking all the steps.

He may not win the men of valour award but he is the champion. He is a hero. Even with the taste of the high life of town still mellowing in his memory, he chose to return to the village and is destined to die in the village. Another statistic in the government books. Despite that, the likes of him are conduits of hope for building self-esteem and confidence among the rural masses.

Volunteers such as him are the unsung heroes who are working without recognition. There are so many of them, all in the ministry of dispensing hope. Pastors, health workers, nutritionists, conservationists, elementary school teachers, peace officers and the list will go on.

These people are the hope for educating rural PNG. People like him bring direction to the confusion of a people caught between the past and the present – a people lost in transition between cultures.

These volunteers are not looking for recognition. These volunteers approach what they do as a calling, a purpose for being born into this country for this day and time. They are the real patriots, a shining beacon of example to many who expect pay to do the minimum required to serve this great country.

In the hand of a wise government, local volunteers represent a workforce that can accomplish a lot of government plans in the rural and remote places in PNG. At the moment, these group of people act on their own, with their own resources and at their own time.

They struggle, but they continue because they believe it is their calling. Blessed are the feet of those, who bring good news and hope.

Re-wire the Brain: New Conservation Direction

DSC_0200

A singsing group from the Zia Tribe of the Waria Valley, Morobe South Coast.

Whittling it down to the bare bones of it all, conservation has been about satisfying human values: protecting and or restoring ecosystem services for the benefit of humans, preserving a super market for human needs, protecting aesthetic values for human pleasure, securing nature for posterity value – especially in pharmacology for the benefit of humans, and protecting the inherent value of nature as deemed important by humans.

When conservation efforts is human centered, the underlying philosophy is that of a custodian.  Human beings make themselves lord over nature, the rule maker – they take on the responsibility for protecting nature by making the rules to safeguard  nature and to reverse the negative impacts caused by members of their species.

The ideology of custodianship is absent in a lot of indigenous groups.  For example, people in traditional Melanesia consider themselves part of nature. The relationship is one of awe and respect and fear because of the intricate relationship and interdependence that exists between humans and nature.

Conservation proponents from the West who brought conservation to Melanesia brought in the custodian ideology.  Melanesians were thoughtlessly taken out of nature and crowned as lord over nature.   Their fear of the spirits and the unknown was revealed as petty and expelled as myth.

Knowledge and technology which was supposed to protect nature instead liberated voracious consumers.  The fear of the unknown and the fear of spirits expunged from his existence, the semi traditional man has run amok  in the forest, lighting fire and cutting trees and  over-harvesting  wildlife.

Western project proponents wrongly assumed that  forest owners shared their  values for conservation.  In reality, the forest owner have never wasted sleep on issues of climate change and extinction. Any change in nature was taken in stride as nature being nature.

The West also brought with it the concept of development.  A concept that contradicts their idea of conservation. Development is measured by  an accumulation of material wealth and money, while conservation promotes frugality.  When judged through western eyes , the forest people were pitied as a poor people.

Desiring  ’development’ but being so far from development opportunities,  the forest owners readily embraced conservation as a development option. The conservation proponents misread the enthusiasm of forest owners and pledged goods and services in exchange for a piece of the bush.  In the long run, the good intentions become a liability when conservation proponents become  engrossed in community development issues that had nothing to do with conservation.

The custodian mentality will not begin to sink in until forest owners achieve self-actualization as per Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.  Self-actualization will come about only when these forest people are satisfied with their station in life. Only then can they appreciate the custodian philosophy of looking after nature.

The irony of the preceding paragraph is that, indigenous people had achieved some level of self-actualization in their own societies. People had reached a point where all their basic needs were taken care of that they had time for activities outside of survival. Evidence is in the complexity of  customs and cultural rites and adornment.

Despite that, indigenous people are judged against the introduced culture of materialism and individualism, this causes them to lose confidence and trust in the system that worked for their forefathers and which has been passed down through generations.  They lose confidence in their innate knowledge of their environment.

With misplaced priorities, people shun the real keepers of knowledge – the elders, and put their faith in high school graduates who can speak English.

For progress, there is a need for indigenous communities to re-kindle pride for culture. A re-wiring of the mind that helps them realize that development is relative and that they are not as destitute as they are made to feel and they can keep their culture and live in a village and also enjoy the benefits of Western inventions such as medicine and countless technology.

The onus is now on indigenous people to reconcile their indigenous way of life with ideas from the outside.  A balance must be found between the two because conservation has become the last lifeline for indigenous people in maintaining and sustaining a livelihood in the face of rapid loss of culture, climate change, rapid population growth and loss of water sources and cultural lands.

 

 

Poverty in PNG. What did they measure?

PIC01921.JPG

According to Oxfam Australia, poverty has increased in PNG since the mid-1990s. It now stands at 37%. In other words, just over 2.6 million people out of a population of 7.5 million total population of PNG live on less than USD $1.25 per day.

To get a picture of the 2.6 million poor people in PNG – combine the population of the five highland provinces plus Morobe Province.

At today’s exchange rate, being poor in PNG means, having less than K3 at the end of any given day.

Indeed, in an urban setting, a K3 cannot buy the standard daily town meal of rice and tinned fish. A K3 is only enough for an unhealthy lunch of one deep fried flour ball and one boiled sausage. Similarly, at the market, a K3 can only buy a small heap of kaukau or potato for just one meal.

In contrast, in the rural area, a K3 has more value at the market but dramatically decreases at the trade store. At the market, a K3 can buy kaukau, greens and a piece of fruit or a coconut. However, a K3 in the village is not enough to get anything, except a packet of biscuit or two. A rural family wishing to eat both rice and fish need to have at least a US$7 or K20.

The K3 has different value at different places. Economists may explain this as the impact of supply and demand. The value of a K3 is high in the rural market because the demand for vegetables is low where supply is high. Demand for store bought goods however, is high in the rural areas. The price hike is probably because of freight charges as well as the fact that imported stuff including food are luxury items in rural area.

A luxury item is not needed for survival but is acquired for various reasons including to make life more pleasant or as a status symbol. Luxury goods are typically more costly and are often acquired by people who have more money than an average person.

What is money when people maintain their livelihood from the environment at no charge? This reason makes the current definition of poverty irrelevant in a place where cash is irrelevant.  The question now is, who are the 37% poor people in PNG?  What did they measure to come up with that number?

Definitely, the poor people are not the politicians and their cronies, who make up 1% of the population. It definitely is not the 10% working class who get paid enough to eat more than just rice and tinned fish until the next pay day. Because of the reasons above, the 75% rural people are out. The only group remaining are the vagabonds – the village runaways who have left the village for a life in town.

The absence of good data makes it hard to verify the Oxfam data if indeed, vagabonds when rounded up can fill up the highlands region and spill into Morobe province. Current assumption elsewhere put vagabonds at around 15% of the total population. Where then, is the other 22% of poor people as reported by Oxfam Australia?

Making lists and ranking people according to an irrelevant target can affect the psyche of human beings.  When people are made to feel helpless, they stop looking at ways to help themselves. They become dependent, feel impoverished, and disillusioned.

Change your mind and change your life. That is all it requires for us to take our life back from dependency. Since time immemorial, people have depended on their environment to maintain a livelihood. The instinct for turning soil into food is not lost to even the urbanites. Go to any house with a yard and you will see banana, or cassava or even fruit trees incorporated into the landscape. Go to any settlement and you will see people tending any piece of soil they can find.

Therefore, poverty in the PNG context is not about money. Living in poverty in PNG is when households go to sleep hungry because they are not willing to turn soil into food.  Poverty in PNG is when people forsake food security in the village for town where cash is king.

The use of a single currency as the only legal tender has disadvantaged the rural people. If the government cannot support economic activities in rural areas for people to earn money, then it must allow rural people to barter using wealth from their environment. They can barter for food and especially medicine using wealth from the forest when they have no cash to buy those select items.

Mangrove Planting for Climate Change

mangrove

 

Mangrove as a tool in addressing climate change gained prominence after the East Asia Tsunami in 2004. The tsunami generated in the Indian Ocean, ravaged coastal communities facing the Indian Ocean taking many lives and damaging infrastructure worth a lot of money.

Anecdotal evidence show that villages situated behind mangroves stands, sustain less damage when compared to those communities without mangrove barriers.

In the absence of technological intervention, Climate Change Experts identify mangroves as the first protection for coastal villages facing coastal flooding and extreme high tide.  Mangrove projects can be easily implemented by communities. Mangrove planting and rehabilitation costs less than other technological interventions and has been shown to be effective in saving lives and property.

What makes mangroves special?

Like any other tree species, the mangroves take 10-15 years to mature before they can provide the desired effect. Mature stands of mangrove act like a porous fence that slows down wave energy by reducing the velocity of the waves into and out of communities resulting in less damage infrastructure and livelihood.

 

Mangrove planting or mangrove forest rehabilitation must be approached as a long term strategy with the goal of ensuing planted and or rehabilitated mangrove stands become mature stands in the future.

Current practice involves planting of plant mangrove seedling in areas already under threat from the rising sea level. Numerous mangrove replanting exercise have never attained the envisaged success – this is despite the common  knowledge that young mangroves at waterfront are vulnerable to wave action and are easily uprooted and killed by the sun and the salt.

Ideally a mangrove replanting exercise should duplicate a vegetation succession as happens in nature.

Vegetation succession at a beach normally starts from the forest edge and gradually grows seaward.

Firstly, pioneer species like vines and grasses grow first to help build a soil environment suited for succession to take place. Then the trees, starting with the terrestrial species at the forest edge. Once this has established then the back mangrove species is the next to germinate, followed by the middle mangrove species then finally, the front line mangrove species facing the foreshore.

Re-vegetation through succession enables the plants to gradually adapt to a salty growing substrate and increases their chances of survival.

The process of natural succession takes years, the same will apply to a successful mangrove planting project.

The communities that survived the East Asia Tsunami in 2004, did not plant their mangrove stands the year prior to the tsunami. The mangrove stands have existed and protected, probably not intentionally, but importantly , the mangrove stands provided the needed protection.

While waiting for the mangrove forest to grow , the most cost effective climate change activity is educating people about the impending crises and the options available for adapting to the change.  Local people do have solutions for their challenges. They must be involved in the quest for a solution.

For the donors who fund mangrove projects, they  must realize that the impact of mangrove planting can only be realized in the future. Therefore they must  look for other targets to measure how their funds in the short term  is successfully addressing the climate change challenge.

Birds and their coloured feathers

The colours observed in bird feathers is made up of keratin, carotenoids, and melanin or a combination of the three.

feather Keratin serves a structural function in the construction of feathers. The keratin differs in implantation, thickness and stiffness of the rachis and barbs, symmetry and curvature of vanes. This structural design plays an important role when the bird combines colour and pattern to produces different signals.

Carotenoids are the pigments responsible for most bright reds, oranges, and yellows. Carotenoid cannot be synthesized by animals, and must be included in the diet, and are often limited in nature. Colours and ornaments that rely on carotenoids are costly to produce. Carotenoid is ingested from the diet at the time the bird is moulting and the colour gets deposited in the feathers.

Melanin pigments are deposited as black or dark brown granules within the epidermal cells. They create colour effects in combination with other pigments. Melanin adds strength and abrasion-resistance to keratins. Melanin is also a predictor of dominance, hormonal balance, foraging abilities, and provides protection from ectoparasites.

The gene responsible for melanin has been identified down to a single locus. This gene is highly variable for different birds and produce a colour ranging from the black, grey, brown to reddish brown and the yellow in chicken chicks.

The persistence of colour variations  in birds from generation to generation shows that feather colour is an inherited trait. Apart from the genetics, the amount of light variation in the environment also controls the variation observed in bird feather colour.

The amount of light in the environment is affected by the environmental features, for example, a forest with trees would exaggerate shadows when contrasted to a treeless environment. Furthermore, the light spectrum changes with increasing altitude.

Bird plumage can be classified into three groups according to the reflecting properties of the light as would be seen by the birds. Type A feathers have strong reflecting properties while type B has no reflective properties; and Type A/B only gives a weak reflection. Melanin colours ranging from pale yellow, chestnut, and brown and, black does not reflect much light in the ultra-violet (UV) range.

 The patterns observed on feathers are created by the scattering of light by ordered layers of melanin granules within the keratin of the barbs. The birds are capable of either repeating exactly from one set of feathers to the next or varying to produce apparent differences between sexes, age group and populations.

The green colour in parrots and other green birds is rarely acquired through the diet, but is a combination of yellow and blue. If the yellow is a Type A then the reflectance will be high, but if the yellow contains melanin then the green will result in Type A/B. CSC_0828

The red coloured feather is most times type A/B.  The type A/B red is mostly observed in birds that inhabit areas with more precipitation where red radiation is weak and allows the bird to blend into a dark background making the bird less conspicuous in the dense canopy of the rainforest.

Many bird species that are involved in predator-prey relationships exhibit colour polymorphism. These birds tend to move continuously, have a generalist habitat requirement and a widespread but patchy distribution. The Owl is a good example.

The adaptative function of melanin type B plumage on the cuckoo brood parasites is related to its life style of stealth.  The dull plumage has no reflectance and therefore is cryptic and conceals the presence of the parasitic bird near host nests. Furthermore, the arrangement of the bars on the feather which is arranged in the broken fashion enables the bird to remain cryptic in the undergrowth of the woodlands and mangrove bush while it searches for possible host.

The Bird of Paradise feathers seem to be the attraction for mate choice. A male with bright colour signals good nutritional condition and could be related to his ability to forage for the high quality food. As a result, bright colours in the male bird have been associated with the ability to provision, disease resistance, dominance and the honest advertisement of sexual prowess. The extra feathers on the Bird of Paradise does not have any aerodynamic significance but developed as a result of selection by females. The choosy female achieves the highest fitness by mating with an individual displaying the feature that signals the best quality.  However such trait often impairs foraging success and increases predation risk, so that only high quality individuals can afford such a trait and only high quality males are chosen by the female.

When human beings begin to understand the importance of feather color to birds, we shall begin to see the implication of our actions of selectively harvesting beautiful feathered birds, or removing bird habitat through logging. Or even the detrimental effects of keeping bids in aviaries as an excuse for conservation.

Forgive us our sins against the birds

cassowary_3Birds have been in the center of human attention since the dawn of time. The birds have inspired human cultures – from adornment, to dance moves, to habits. Birds as food is well-documented in human historical archives. Birds have even found a place in religion – immortalized in songs, stories, and rituals. Bird figurines are fashioned from precious stones, carved into wood, shaped out of a rock, molded into glass and even beaten onto metal. Some models are miniature replicas, others like the Nazca  hummingbird outline in the Peruvian desert is close to 100 meters in length and can only be seen from the air.  The modern technological feat of air travel has its source of inspiration in birds.

Once upon a time, beautiful and exotic bird feathers had their price weighed in gold and were traded alongside spice and precious metals. From high couture to indigenous culture, bird feathers has been and is still being used as a significant dress accessory.

Apart from satisfying human values, birds also serve important ecological function. Birds carry pollen from flower to flower ensuring seed production.  The birds even disperse seeds across the landscape that eventually grows into trees in the forest.

Selective harvesting of the best looking bird to satisfy human desire has caused certain bird populations to decline. Through natural selection over time, the brightest bird with the handsomest feather is also the possessor of good genes. Selectively removing the best birds removes the good gene from the gene pool.

With anti-pouching laws in place, extinction through harvest had been minimized. The main threat on birds these days is anthropogenic activities that destroy the habitat of the bird. Logging is one such destructive activity. Logging obliterates the home of the birds and destroys their food source, and in turn paves the way for increased predation.

Climate change, an anthropogenic driven change to the world climate is driving birds up the altitude and when there is no more space, the birds go over the edge. Extinction is inevitable. When that will happen is just a question of time.

Locking birds in aviaries is not a substitute for preservation. If animal indeed do have rights, then keeping birds in aviaries is a crime.   Birds are born to soar into the heavens but aviaries clip the wings of these birds and subdue their instinctive need for depth and breadth in space.  Studies have identified that most tropical bird species are nomads or transient species and move within  certain latitudinal gradients over a large area following availability of food.

In a mixed flock aviary, a number of birds are put into a single aviary. In the wild, these birds would not normally associate. In nature some of these birds occupy space at the top of the canopy while others in the mid canopy and others in the understorey. This division is a function of adaptation to minimize competition. At the different levels, the micro-climate is also specific for the insect, fruits and small plants found in that layer – which in turn is food for the birds. An aviary does not take that into consideration.

Birds in aviaries are fed a standard diet of fruits. Even if all are frugivores, some species feed on insects for extra nutrients. Others have been seen in the wild to practice geophagy – or soil eating for its mineral and salt content. The feathers of birds serve special function including advertisement of fitness, health, sexual fitness, camouflage and even stealth. Colored features are not grown but are the result of ingesting the colors from the food that is eaten.  Being fed a standard diet compromises the integrity of fitness advertisement.

Some birds need to remain in a group for competition to ensure the fittest genes are selected. For instance, the lek in Bird of Paradise is done by a group of male birds and never done by individual birds. Furthermore, without the required environment, a bower-bird may not be able to build required dance area to entice the female.

Just like humans, a reduction in personal space results in different psychological issues. Aggression, depression are two main ones. But changes can happen at the cellular level that affects other functions like mating rituals, reproduction and even the responsibility of rearing chicks.

At the end of the day, when humans finally meet the maker of the birds, we will be found guilty of all the bad things we have done against the birds.

Help. Forests needs protection

With greed in his heart and chain saw in his hand, man has within a few years, reduced to a wasteland the majestic forests which had taken thousands of years to grow.

The experiences from numerous logging projects is sufficient evidence that commercial logging can never deliver benefits on long-term agreements to forest owners, yet, destroy the environment people derive their livelihood from.

The impact of logging is a liability to all the future generations who are connected to this forest through the streams and creeks all the way to the ocean.

Forest are support systems

Trees in a forest are like the support beams of houses. These beams anchor the house and make it stable, on these beams other structures are built upon.

These structures include complex systems like the water cycle and the nutrient cycles. This complex systems have developed over time and science is just scratching the surface of the vast interdependence of life on this self maintaining system.

The impact of removing these support beams is a house that is destabilized.

Removal of trees through logging also disrupts numerous mutual relationships widespread in the forest – the loss of one species has a negative impact on others.  For instance, the loss of a fruiting tree depend on the animal that feeds on it to disperse their seeds and these tree species may fail to recruit seedlings if these frugivores disappear because of loss of their food source.

Removing forests also opens up the canopy and simplifies the vertical stratification of the forest. Each canopy level is structured according to the distribution of pollinators. A simplification of strata allows more sunlight into the forest floor which in turn encourages the growth of more pioneer species and weeds. Such generalist species are more adaptable and can cope with the effects of changed forest stratums, but not so for most primary forest birds and mammals that are specialists with narrow niches.  Removing the different strata also removes the natural moisture held by the trees, compounded with increase in the wooden debris, the incidence for bush fire is increase.

Forest fragmentation through logging also disrupts the connectivity in the landscape. The fragmentation of the forest isolates patches of vegetation resulting in increased isolation and the separation of small populations which increases the distances between similar species. This reduces the inter-tree movement of pollinators and seed dispersers. Even the pool of available pollinators is reduced as an effect of habitat change, further reducing between-plant pollen flow leading to an insufficient regeneration of forest trees due to reduced seed production from the disruption of plant-pollinator interactions.

Furthermore, removing only the specially selected trees reduces the genetic pool of this particular tree species. Selectively removing the biggest trees also delays the seed producing potential of the forest.

Protect forest to protect water

Nature has an efficient system of recycling water. Logging, however, destroys the system that ensures there is fresh, clean water for both wildlife and human beings. The removal of trees results in the groundwater tables getting depleted because the trees lose their function of helping the soil absorb flowing water. When there are no trees, water just runs off, leaving no chance for the groundwater tables to absorb more water. The land then becomes unproductive as soil properties responsible for supplying soil nutrients are leached from rain falling freely on the soil when the canopy is removed. The large quantities of sediments washed away from deforested areas end up in streams and river cause high turbidity and siltation, combine this with run-off from diesel and other petroleum oils used by loggings machinery and chemicals employed to treat the timber, and fisheries downstream as far as the reefs is threatened.

Furthermore, deforestation disrupts the water cycle by changing weather patterns. Intact forests  play an important role in how rainfall is formed.

Water quality is a good predictor of human health.

Forest have potential value for future

The forest is a store-house of products yet to be discovered that may have vital use for humans in the future. However, this storehouse is getting lost when loggers are allowed to indiscriminately rape the forest. We are yet to document plant and animal life that live in tree canopies as well as on forest floors, and those hidden under litter. A systematic research on what we have in our forests may reveal potential products that may become a sustainable source of revenue in the future. The loss of this undiscovered value can be prevented.

REDD+ is a potential source of revenue in the near future for forested communities. REDD+ can only be realized on unfragmented, intact forest. The advantage of REDD+ is that, forest owners can still benefit from the services that a forest renders while still making money. This is unlike what happens with commercial logging where the loss of ecosystem services is the price paid for the royalties. Money cannot bring back the ecosystem services, because only an intact forest that maintains ecosystem services.

Large intact forests: best climate change adaptation strategy

The impact of climate change is another challenge imposed on humans by nature. The impact is unpredictable and is happening at a very fast rate that even nature has no time to adapt to the changes. A large intact ecosystem is more resilient to the impacts of climate change, so protecting the forest is the best climate change adaption strategy.

A forest untouched by commercial loggers is insurance for forest dwelling people as a source of maintaining a livelihood in the face of the changes affecting the climate. Therefore, forests need to be protected from the loggers just because money from commercial logging cannot buy services rendered by large intact forests.

%d bloggers like this: